Three Historical Theories Entry Islam Into Indonesia

First theory history entry of Islam in Indonesia is Gujarat Theory. This theory says, process arrival Islam to Indonesia originated from Gujarat in 7th century H or 13th century AD. - History entry Islam into Indonesia there are three theories, namely Gujarat Theory, Makkah Theory, and Persian Theory. These three theories, put forward their perspectives on when Islam came from, country of origin, propagators or carriers of Islam to Indonesia.

These three theories actually do not discuss entry of Islam into each islands in Indonesia, but only analyze entry of Islam into Sumatra and Java, because these two regions are samples for other Indonesian regions.

In other words, entry Islam into island determines development Islam in other islands. The following are three theories:

1. Gujarat Theory

First theory history entry of Islam in Indonesia is Gujarat Theory. This theory says, process arrival Islam to Indonesia originated from Gujarat in 7th century H or 13th century AD. Gujarat is located in western India, adjacent to Arabian Sea.

Figures who socialize this theory are mostly scholars from Netherlands. The first scholar to put forward this theory was J. Pijnapel from Leiden University in 19th century.

According to him, the Arabs in the Syafei school had settled in Gujarat and Malabar since the beginning of the Hijriyyah (7th century AD), but Pijnapel said that those who spread Islam to Indonesia were not from direct Arabs, but were from Gujarat traders who had embraced Islam and traded eastwards, including Indonesia.

In subsequent developments, Pijnapel's theory was echoed and spread by a leading Dutch orientalist, Snouck Hurgronje. According to him, Islam had already developed in the port cities of the Indian subcontinent.

The Gujarat had opened trade relations with Indonesia earlier than Arab traders. In Hurgronje's view, the arrival of the Arabs took place in the future. The Arabs who came were mostly from the Prophet Muhammad who used the title "Sayid" or "Sharif" in front of his name.

The Gujarat Theory was later developed by J.P. Moquetta (1912) who gave an argument with the tombstone of Sultan Malik Al-Saleh who died on 17 Dhu al-Hijjah 831 H / 1297 AD in Pasai, Aceh. According to him, the headstone in Pasai and the grave of Maulanan Malik Ibrahim who died in 1419 in Gresik, East Java, has the same shape as the headstone found in Kambay, Gujarat.

Moquetta finally concluded that the stone was taken out of Gujarat, or made by Gujarati or Indonesian people who had learned Gujarat's calligraphy. Another reason is the Syafi'i school of worship among Muslim communities in Gujarat and Indonesia.

In its development, the theory of Gujarat was refuted by many experts. More accurate evidence such as news from Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Indonesian proves that Islam entered Indonesia and was not brought by Gujarat traders.

Historian Azyumardi Azra explained that Gujarat and cities in Indian subcontinent were only a stopover for Arab traders before continuing their journey to Southeast Asia and East Asia. In addition, in the XII-XIII century AD the Gujarat region was still dominated by strong Hindu abilities.

From various arguments, Gujarat put forward by some historians, anthropologists and political scientists, their analysis looks Hindu-centric, because it assumes that all social, political, economic, cultural and religious changes in Indonesia are not possible due to Indian influence.

The Gujarat theory is of course its weakness, when compared to Makkah Theory. To find out more, below will be discussed about the view of Makkah Theory.

2. Mecca Theory

Makkah's theory says that the process of entry of Islam into Indonesia is directly from Mecca or Arabic. This process took place in the first century Hijri or 7th century AD. The person who introduced this theory was Haji Abdul Karim Amrullah or HAMKA, one of Indonesia's scholars and writers.

Hamka expressed his opinion in 1958, when a speech was delivered at the anniversary of the State Islamic University (PTIN) in Yogyakarta.

He rejected all the assumptions of Western scholars who argued that Islam came to Indonesia indirectly from Arabic. The arguments used as reference material for HAMKA are Indonesian local sources and Arabic sources.

According to him, the initial motivation for the arrival of Arabs was not based on economic values, but was driven by the spirit of the spread of Islam. In Hamka's view, the trade route between Indonesia and the Arabs had taken place long before the Christian era.

In this case, the HAMKA theory is a refutation Gujarat Theory which has many weaknesses. He is even suspicious prejudices Western Orientalist writers who tend to discredit Islam in Indonesia.

Western writers, said HAMKA, made a very systematic effort to dispel beliefs Malay countries about intimate spiritual relations between them and Arab lands as main source Islam in Indonesia in studying religious knowledge.

In HAMKA's view, Muslims in Indonesia get Islam from the first people (Arabs), not just from trade.

HAMKA's view is almost same as Sufi Theory expressed by A.H. Johns who said that it was travelers (wanderers) who had carried out initial Islamization in Indonesia. Sufis usually wander from place to place to set up associations or tarekat schools.

There is an interesting fact in case of Arab sailing written by T.W. Arnold. It was stated that Arabs since 2nd century BC had mastered trade in Ceylon.

If related to explanation Ancient Arabic literature which mentions Al-Hind meaning India or islands east it to China, and Indonesia was also called China Island, most likely in 2nd century BC Arabs had reached Indonesia. Only mention as islands China or Al-Hind.

If indeed there has been a relationship between the Arabs and Indonesia since the 2nd century BC, then the Arabs were the first foreign nation to come to the archipelago.

3. Persian Theory

Persian theory says that process coming to Indonesia came from Persian or Persian (now Iran) regions. Originator this theory is Hoesein Djajadiningrat, a historian from Banten.

In giving his argument, Hoesein focused his analysis more on similarities culture and traditions that developed between Persian and Indonesian people.

These cultural similarities can be seen in Indonesian Islamic society, including:

First, 10th anniversary of Muharram or Ashura as a Shiite holy day for death Husein bin Ali, grandson Prophet Muhammad, as developed in ark tradition at Pariaman in West Sumatra. The term "ark" (coffin) is taken from Arabic which is translated through Persian.

Second, other traditions are mystical teachings that have many similarities, for example between teachings Shaykh Siti Jenar from Central Java and Sufi teachings Al-Hallaj from Persia. Not coincidentally, both of them were sentenced to death by local authorities because their teachings were considered contrary to Islamic monotheism (apostasy) and endangered political and social stability.

Third, use term Iran in spelling system of Arabic, for signs sound people in study Qur'an at an early stage. Toothless Sin comes from Persia, while toothed Sin comes from Arabic.

Fourth, gravestone at tomb of Malikus Saleh (1297) and tomb Malik Ibrahim (1419) in Gresik was ordered from Gujarat. In this case, Persian Theory has absolute similarities with Gujarat theory.

Fifth, another reason given by Hoesein that is in line with Moquetta's theory, is that there are similarities in carving calligraphy on gravestones used in early Islamic graves in Indonesia. Another similarity is that Indonesian Muslims adhere to the Syafei school, same as most Muslims in Iran. (as/man)
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