Kutai Kingdom, Oldest Hindu Kingdom in East Kalimantan


IPHEDIA - Kutai Martadipura Kingdom is a Hindu-style kingdom in Indonesia which has oldest historical evidence that stood around 4th century. This kingdom is located in Muara Kaman, East Kalimantan, precisely in upper reaches Mahakam river.

Name Kutai was given by experts to take name of place where inscription was found that showed existence kingdom. There is no inscription that clearly mentions name of this kingdom and indeed very little information can be obtained.

Existing information was obtained from Yupa / inscriptions in sacrificial ceremonies dating from 4th century. There are seven yupa which are main source for experts in interpreting history of Kutai Kingdom.

Yupa is a stone monument that serves as a memorial made by Brahman for generosity King Mulawarman. In Hinduism cows are not slaughtered like sacrifices made by Muslims.

From one of these yupa, it is known that  king who ruled Kutai kingdom at that time was Mulawarman. His name is recorded in Yupa because his generosity of donating 20,000 head of cattle to Brahmins.

Founder Kutai Kingdom dynasty named Aswawarman, son of King Kudungga. He also holds title Wangsakerta, which means forming a family. Aswawarman has 3 sons, and one of them is Mulawarman.

Name Maharaja Kudungga is interpreted by historians as the original name of Indonesian people who have not been influenced by name of Indian culture. While his son named Asmawarman is believed to have been influenced by Hindu culture.

This is based on fact that the word Warman comes from Sanskrit. Word is usually used to describe names people or residents of southern India.

It is known from Yupa that during reign of Mulawarman, Kingdom of Kutai experienced a golden period. Its territory covers almost entire territory East Kalimantan. People Kutai live in prosperity and prosperity.

Names Mulawarman and Aswawarman are very thick with influence Sanskrit when viewed from way writing. Kundungga is an official from Campa Kingdom (Cambodia) who came to Indonesia. Kundungga itself is allegedly not yet a Hindu.

Kutai Kingdom ended when Kutai King named Maharaja Dharma Setia was killed in battle at hands 13th King Kutai Kartanegara, Aji Pangeran Anum Panji Mendapa. Keep in mind that this Kutai (Kutai Martadipura) is different from Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara which was capital Kutai Lama (Tanjung Kute) at that time.

Kutai Kartanegara in 1365 is mentioned in Javanese Negarakertagama literature. Kutai Kartanegara subsequently became Islamic kingdom. Since 1735 Kutai Kartanegara Kingdom which was originally king's title Prince changed into title Sultan (Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris) and until now called Sultanate Kutai Kartanegara. (as/rs)

Names Kings in Kutai Kingdom:

  •     Maharaja Kudungga, posthumous title Dewawarman (founder)
  •     Maharaja Asmawarman (Kundungga's son)
  •     Maharaja Mulawarman (Aswawarman's son)
  •     Maharaja Marawijaya Warman
  •     Maharaja Gajayana Warman
  •     Maharaja Tungga Warman
  •     Maharaja Jayanaga Warman
  •     Maharaja Nalasinga Warman
  •     Maharaja Nala Parana Tungga Warman
  •     Maharaja Gadingga Warman Dewa
  •     Maharaja Indra Warman Dewa
  •     Maharaja Sangga Warman Dewa
  •     Maharaja Candrawarman
  •     Maharaja Sri Rare Dewa Warman
  •     Maharaja Guna Parana Dewa Warman
  •     Maharaja Wijaya Warman
  •     Maharaja Sri Aji Dewa Warman
  •     Maharaja Mulia Putera Warman
  •     Maharaja Nala Pandita Warman
  •     Maharaja Indra Paruta Dewa Warman
  •     Maharaja Dharma Setia Warman
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