Tarumanegara Kingdom, Oldest Kingdom in West Java

The word tarumanagara comes from the words taruma and nagara. Nagara means kingdom or state, while taruma comes from the word tarum, the name of the river that divides West Java, namely Citarum.

IPHEDIA - Tarumanagara Kingdom or Kingdom of Taruma, the oldest kingdom in Indonesia that had ruled in the western region of Java in the 4th century to the 7th century AD. In historical records and artifacts around the royal location, it appears that at that time the Kingdom of Taruma was a Hindu kingdom winged by Vishnu.

The word tarumanagara comes from the words taruma and nagara. Nagara means kingdom or state, while taruma comes from the word tarum, the name of the river that divides West Java, namely Citarum. In the Citarum estuary, extensive bathing is found, namely the Batujaya Baths and the Cibuaya Baths which are thought to be civilizations from the Kingdom of Taruma.

If you view the historical records or inscriptions that exist, there is no definitive explanation or record of who was the first to establish the kingdom of Tarumanegara. The king who was once in power and is very famous in historical records is Purnawarman.

In 417, Purnawarman ordered the excavation of the Gomati and Candrabaga Rivers (Kali Bekasi) along the 6112 spears (about 11 km). After excavation, the prabu held a salvation by offering 1,000 head of cattle to the Brahmins.

Proof of the existence of the Kingdom of Taruma with the discovery of seven stone inscriptions. Five in Bogor, one in Jakarta and one in Lebak Banten. From these inscriptions it is known that this kingdom was led by Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman in 358 AD and ruled until 382 AD The tomb of Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman is around the Gomati River (Bekasi area). Tarumanegara Kingdom is a continuation of the Kingdom of Salakanagara.

Inscriptions found include Kebon Kopi Inscription, Tugu Inscription, Cidanghiyang Inscription or Munjul Inscription, Ciaruteun Inscription, Elephant Palm Inscription, Ciampea Inscription, Cianten Estuary Inscription, Muara Sand Inscription, Inscription Guava, Inscription Pasir Awi and Citeureup Inscription, Bogor.

Tarumanegara Kingdom is estimated to have evolved between 400-600 AD. Based on these inscriptions, it is known that the king who ruled at that time was Purnawarman. The territory of Purnawarman, according to the Tugu inscription, covers nearly all of West Java that stretches from Banten, Jakarta, Bogor and Cirebon.

In the Wangsakerta Text from Cirebon, Tarumanegara was founded by Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman in 358, which was later replaced by his son, Dharmayawarman (382-395). Jayasingawarman was depraved on the banks of the Gomati River, while his son was on the banks of the River Candrabaga.

Maharaja Purnawarman was the third Tarumanagara king (395-434 AD). He built a new royal capital in 397 which was located closer to the coast. The city was named Sundapura — the first time the name "Sunda" was used.

The Sand Muara inscription which mentions the return of the government to the King of Sunda was made in 536 AD In that year the ruler of Tarumanagara was Suryawarman (535 - 561 AD) the 7th King Tarumanagara.

Literature Jawadwipa, parwa I, sarga 1 (pages 80 and 81) provide information that during the reign of Candrawarman (515-535 AD), Suryawarman's father, many regional rulers who regained governmental authority over their area as a reward for their loyalty to Tarumanagara. From this point of view, Suryawarman did the same thing as his father's political continuation.

The Purnawarman inscription in Pasir Muara reported that the King of Sunda in 536 AD was a symptom that the capital of Sundapura had changed its status to become a regional kingdom. This means, the center of Tarumanagara's government has shifted to another place.

A similar example can be seen from the status of Rajatapura or Salakanagara (the city of Perak), called Argyre by Ptolemy in 150 AD This city until 362 became the seat of the government of the Dewawarman Kings (from Dewawarman I - VIII).

When the central government moved from Rajatapura to Tarumangara, Salakanagara changed its status to become a regional kingdom. Jayasingawarman, founder of Tarumanagara, was the son-in-law of King Dewawarman VIII. He himself was a Maharesi from Salankayana in India who fled to the archipelago because his area was attacked and conquered by Maharaja Samudragupta from the Kingdom of Magada.

Suryawarman not only continued his father's political policies which gave more credibility to the regional king to take care of his own government, but also turned his attention to the eastern regions. In 526 AD, for example, Manikmaya, Suryawarman's son-in-law, established a new kingdom in Kendan, Nagreg area between Bandung and Limbangan, Garut.

The son of the Manikmaya figure lived with his grandfather in the capital Tarumangara and later became Commander of the Tarumanagara Army. The development of the eastern region became more developed when the great-grandson Manikmaya founded the Galuh Kingdom in 612 AD.

Tarumanagara itself only experienced the reign of 12 kings. In 669, Linggawarman, the last Tarumanagara king, was succeeded by his son-in-law, Tarusbawa. Linggawarman himself had two daughters, the eldest named Manasih became Tarusbawa's wife from Sunda and the second named Sobakancana became the wife of Dapuntahyang Sri Jayanasa, founder of the Sriwijaya Kingdom. Automatically, the throne of Tarumanagara's power fell to his son-in-law from his eldest daughter, Tarusbawa.

The power of Tarumanagara ended with the transfer of the throne to Tarusbawa, because Tarusbawa personally wanted to return to his own kingdom, namely Sunda which was previously in the power of Tarumanagara. Upon this transfer of power to Sunda, only Galuh disagreed and decided to separate from the Sundanese who had inherited the Tarumanagara region. (as/tb)

The Kings of Tarumanagara according to the Wangsakerta Text:

1. Jayasingawarman (358-382)
2. Dharmayawarman (382-395)
3. Purnawarman (395-434)
4. Wisnuwarman (434-455)
5. Indrawarman (455-515)
6. Candrawarman (515-535)
7. Suryawarman (535-561)
8. Kertawarman (561-628)
9. Sudhawarman (628-639)
10. Hariwangsawarman (639-640)
11. Nagajayawarman (640-666)
12. Linggawarman (666-669)
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