Malay Kingdom, Oldest Kingdom on Sumatra Island - Malay Kingdom established in 7th century centered in Minanga. Whereas, in 13th century it was centered in Dharmasraya and at beginning of 15th century it was centered in Suruaso or Pagaruyung. This kingdom is also known as oldest kingdom on Sumatra Island before Sriwijaya Kingdom and Tulang Bawang Kingdom.

Malay Kingdom or in Chinese written Ma-La-Yu, a royal name that is located on Sumatra Island (Swarnadwipa) or Swarnabumi (Thai: Sovannophum) which is referred to by migrants as a gold island that has a gold mine, and initially had ability in controlling trade in Melaka Straits before finally integrating with Srivijaya Kingdom (Thai: Sevichai) in 682.

Use of the word Malay has been known around 100-150 as mentioned in book by Geolike Sintaxis by Ptolemy which mentions maleu-colon. Then in Hindu Purana in time Gautama Buddha there is term Malaya dvipa which means land surrounded by water.

News about Malay kingdom, among others, is known from two books by Reverend I Tsing or I Ching (pinyin Yì Jìng) (634-713), which is famous, namely Nan-hai Chi-kuei Nei-fa Chuan (Notes on Buddhist teachings sent from South Sea) and Ta-T'ang Hsi-yu Ch'iu-fa Kao-seng Chuan (Notes of the priests who studied in India during the Tang Dynasty).

On their voyage from China to India in 671, I Tsing or I Ching stopped in Sriwijaya for six months to study Sabdawidya, and translate Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Chinese. The story of the voyage of I-tsing from Canton in 671 was told by himself, with translation as follows:

"When the northeast wind began to blow, we sailed away from Canton to the south ... After about twenty days of sailing, we arrived at the land of Srivijaya. There I stayed for six months studying Sabdawidya. His Majesty is very kind to me. He helped send me to the land of Malayu, where I stayed for two months. Then I resumed my voyage to Kedah ... Sailing from Kedah heading north for more than ten days, we arrived at the Oranganjang Islands (Nicobar Islands) ... From here sailed northwest for half a month, then we arrived at Tamralipti (east coast of India) "

Next, on my way home from India in 685, I-tsing told following story:

"Tamralipti is where we take the boat if we are going back to China. Sailing from here to the southeast, in two months we arrived at Kedah. This place now belongs to Srivijaya. When the ship arrives it's the first or second month ... We stay in Kedah until winter, then take the ship to the south. After about a month, we arrived in the land of Malayu, which is now a part of Srivijaya. Ships generally also arrive in the first or second month. The ships always stay in Malayu until mid-summer, then they sail north, and reach Canton in a month. "

According to I Tsing's account, Srivijaya adheres to Hinayana Buddhism, except Ma-la-yu. It is not clearly stated what religion Malay kingdom adheres to.

Other news about Malay Kingdom originated from T'ang-Hui-Yao compiled by Wang p'u in 961, Malay kingdom sent an envoy to China in 645 for first time, but after emergence of Srivijaya around 670, Malay kingdom did not exist anymore sending messengers to China.

Kingdom Central Location

Based on description of I-tsing it is clear that Malay Kingdom was located in middle of a voyage between Srivijaya and Kedah. So, Srivijaya is located in south or southeast of Malay. Almost all historians agree that Malay country is located in upper reaches of Batang Hari river. Because, on base Amoghapasa statue found in Padangroco there is an inscription dating to 1208 Saka (1286) which states that statue was a gift King Kertanagara (Singhasari) to Malay king.

Prof. Opinion Slamet Muljana, term Malayu comes from Malayan word which in Sanskrit means "hill". The name of a kingdom usually refers to name capital city. Therefore, he did not agree if Malayu palace was located in Jambi City, because area was a lowland. According to him, Malayu port was indeed located in Jambi City, but his palace was located in interior where land was rather high.

In Tanjore inscription issued by Rajendra Chola I dated 1030, it states that capital kingdom of Malayu was protected by fortresses, and was located on a hill. From description Abu Raihan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni, Persian geographer, who had visited Southeast Asia in 1030 and wrote his travel notes in Tahqiq ma li l-Hind (Facts in the Indies) which stated that he visited a country located in  equator golden producing island or Golden Khersonese, which is Sumatra Island.

Moving from Minanga to Dharmasraya

The defeat Srivijaya Kingdom due to Rajendra Coladewa attack, King Chola Coromandel had ended rule Sailendra Dynasty over Sumatra Island and Malay Peninsula since 1025. Some time later a new dynasty emerged which took over role Sailendra Dynasty, namely so-called Maangsa Dynasty.

Oldest inscription ever found in name King Mauli is 1183 Grahi Inscription in southern Thailand. Inscription contains orders Maharaja Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa to Grahi regent named Mahasenapati Galanai to make a Buddhist statue weighing 1 bhara 2 tula with a gold value of 10 tamlin. Person who did work making  statue was named Mraten Sri Nano.

Second inscription was more than a century later, Padang Roco Inscription in 1286. This inscription mentions existence a king named Maharaja Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa. He got a shipment of Amoghapasa statues from Kertanagara Raja Singhasari on Java. Statue is then placed on Dharmasraya.

Dharmasraya in Pararaton is called by name Malayu. Thus, Tribhuwanaraja can also be called king Malayu. Tribhuwanaraja itself is most likely a descendant of Trailokyaraja. Therefore, Trailokyaraja can also be considered as king Malayu, although Grahi inscription does not mention it clearly.

By 1183, territory Trailokyaraja had reached Grahi, which was located in southern Thailand (present-day Chaiya). That means, after Srivijaya suffered defeat, Malayu rose again as ruler Straits of Malacca. However, when resurrection began can not be ascertained, from Chinese records it was stated that in 1082 there was still an envoy from Chen-pi (Jambi) as a subordinate of San-fo-ts'i, and at same time an emissary from Pa-lin-fong (Palembang) who is still subordinate to Rajendra family.

Term Srimat which is found in front of names Trailokyaraja, Tribhuwanaraja and Adityawarman comes from Tamil language which means "master priest". Thus, revival Malay kingdom was spearheaded by priests. However, it is not known clearly whether leader revival was Trailokyaraja, or king before him, because until now there has not been found Mauli Dynasty inscription that is older than Grahi inscription.

Dharmasraya Territory

In a script titled Zhufan Zhi by Zhao Rugua in 1225 it was mentioned that country of San-fo-tsi had 15 subordinate regions, namely Che-lan (Cambodia), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, Ch'ai-ya or Chaiya in southern Thailand now) , Tan-ma-ling (Tambralingga, southern Thailand), Ling-ya-si-kia (Langkasuka, southern Thailand), Ki-lan-tan (Kelantan), Ji-lo-t'ing (Cherating, east coast of the Malay peninsula ), Tong-ya-nong (Terengganu), Fo-lo-an (Dungun river estuary, current Terengganu area).

Then, Tsien-mai (Semawe, east coast of Malay Peninsula), Pa-t'a (Paka River, East coast of Malay Peninsula), Pong-fong (Pahang), Lan-mu-li (Lamuri, present-day Aceh), Kien -pi (Jambi), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Sin-to (Sunda), and as such, territory of San-fo-tsi stretches from Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra to Sunda.

The Term San-fo-tsi

In Chinese chronic manuscripts, term San-fo-tsi is used to refer to Sumatra Island in general. During Song Dynasty around the 990s, term was synonymous with Srivijaya. However, when Srivijaya was destroyed in 1025, term San-fo-tsi was still used in Chinese chronic manuscripts.

Chinese Chronicle notes that in period 1079 and 1088, San-fo-tsi still sent envoys from Kien-pi (Jambi) and Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), respectively. In Chinese news entitled Sung Hui Yao, it was mentioned that Kingdom of San-fo-tsi in 1082 sent an ambassador to China, which was under rule of Emperor Yuan Fong.

Ambassador delivered a letter from King Kien-pi subordinate San-fo-tsi, and a letter from  king's daughter entrusted with affairs state of San-fo-tsi, and handed over 227 tahil of jewelery, sago palm, and 13 pieces of clothing. And then continued sending next messenger in 1088.

Conversely, from list subordinate areas San-fo-tsi there is no mention of Ma-la-yu or other names similar to Dharmasraya. Thus, term San-fo-tsi in 1225 was no longer synonymous with Srivijaya, but rather identical with Dharmasraya. So, list of 15 subordinate countries of San-fo-tsi is a list Dharmasraya royal colony, because at that time triumph of Srivijaya was over.

At present, term San-fo-tsi which originally meant Srivijaya was still used in Chinese news to refer to Sumatra Island in general, even though ruling kingdom at that time was Dharmasraya.

Something similar happened in 14th century, namely Ming Dynasty and Majapahit times. Historical records Ming Dynasty still use term San-fo-tsi, as if at that time Srivijaya still existed. Meanwhile, Majapahit's historical record titled Nagarakretagama in 1365 never mentioned a country called Sriwijaya but Palembang.

Pamalayu Expedition

Pararaton and Kidung Panji Wijayakrama texts mention that in 1275, Kertanagara sent Singhasari's envoy from Java to Sumatra, known as Pamalayu Expedition led by Kebo Anabrang.

Padang Roco inscription in 1286 mentions delivery Amoghapasa statue as a sign of friendship between Singhasari and Dharmasraya. In 1293 team returned with two Malayu daughters named Dara Jingga and Dara Petak.

To strengthen friendship between Dharmasraya and Singhasari, Dara Petak was married to Raden Wijaya who had become king Majapahit Kingdom in his place. This marriage gave birth to Jayanagara, second king of Majapahit. Meanwhile, Dara Jingga was married by a "god". He then gave birth to Mr. Janaka who would later become Pagaruyung king entitled Mantrolot Warmadewa.

Regarding this there is another possibility that Raden Wijaya also took Dara Jingga as his wife, because this was normal because Raden Wijaya at that time had become king and also married all Kertanagara's daughters. This was done to maintain peace and stability kingdom after transfer of power in Singhasari.

Some sources say that Mantrolot Warmadewa is identical to Adityawarman Mauli Warmadewa, son of Adwayawarman. Name Adwayawarman is similar to Adwayabrahma, which is one guardians Amoghapasa statue in Padangroco inscription in 1286.

At that time, Adwayabrahma served as Rakryan Mahamantri in Kertanagara government. This position is a high level position. Perhaps what is meant by "god" in Pararaton is this figure. In other words, Raden Wijaya married Dara Jingga with Adwayabrahma so that Adityawarman was born. Adityawarman himself then used title Mauli Warmadewa. This is to show that he is a descendant of Srimat Tribhuwanaraja.

In The Nagarakretagama Book

Kakawin Nagarakretagama, written in 1365, called Dharmasraya as one many colonies Majapahit Kingdom on Sumatra Island. However, interpretation of content that outlines the "regions"  Majapahit kingdom which must pay tribute is still controversial, so it is contested to this day.

In 1339 Adityawarman was sent as an uparaja or subordinate king of Majapahit to conquer Swarnnabhumi, another name for Sumatra Island. The Majapahit conquest began with mastering Palembang. Kidung Pamacangah and Babad Arya Tabanan mention name Arya Damar as Regent Palembang who contributed to helping Gajah Mada conquer Bali in 1343. According to Prof. C.C. Berg, he considered this figure synonymous with Adityawarman.

From Dharmasraya to Pagaruyung

After assisting Majapahit in carrying out several conquests, in 1343 Adityawarman returned to Swarnnabhumi and in 1347 proclaimed himself a continuation Mauli Dynasty  ruler Malay Kingdom at Dharmasrayadan subsequently moved center his government to Suruaso, (Minangkabau area), with title Maharajadiraja Srimat Sri Udayadityawarapapapapri Maulimali Warmadewa.

By looking at title carried by Adityawarman, it was seen that he combined several names that had been known before, Mauli referred to his lineage to House of Mauli, the ruler of Dharmasraya, and title Sri Udayadityavarman had been carried by one Srivijaya kings and added Rajendra to name conqueror Srivijaya ruler, King Chola from Coromandel. This is certainly deliberately done to unite entire ruling family in Swarnnabhumi.

Based on records from Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) it states that in San-fo-tsi (Sumatra) there were three kings. They are Sengk'ia-li-yu-lan (aka Adityawarman), Ma-ha-na-po-lin-pang (Maharaja Palembang), and Ma-na-cha-wu-li (Maharaja Dharmasraya).

Previously during Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Adityawarman had also been sent by Jayanegara twice as an ambassador to China, namely in 1325 and 1332, and certainly with same name during the Ming Dynasty was still referred to Adityawarman, who then returned sending messengers 6 times in span of 1371 to 1377.

From this news it can be related to discovery Tanjung Tanah Law Book in Kerinci which was estimated at time of Adityawarman. In text there is mention of Maharaja Dharmasraya. If related to charter carved on back Amoghapasa Statue, it is clear that Adityawarman has title Maharajadiraja, and oversees Dharmasraya and Palembang. (as/rs)

Here Are Names Kings Malay Kingdom:

1. Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa (1183). Source: Grahi inscription in 1183 in southern Thailand, an order to the Grahi regent named Mahasenapati Galanai to make a statue of Buddha weighing 1 bhara 2 tula with a gold value of 10 tamlin. The capital of the Malay kingdom at that time was Dharmasraya.

2. Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa (1286). Padang Roco inscription in 1286 in Siguntur, sending the Amonghapasa statue as Raja Singhasari's gift to Raja Dharmasraya. The capital of the Malay kingdom at that time was Dharmasraya.

3. Akarendrawarman (1300). Source: Suruaso Inscription. The capital of the Malay kingdom at that time was Dharmasraya or Suruaso.

4. Srimat Sri Udayadityawarman Pratapaparakrama Rajendra Maulimali Warmadewa. (1347). Source: Amoghapasa statue. The capital of the Malay kingdom at that time was Suruaso or Pagarruyung.

5. Ananggawarman (1375). Source: Pagaruyung Inscription. The capital of the Malay kingdom at that time was Pagaruyung.
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