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History Population Until Establishment South Sumatra Province

Since 300 BC, Deutro-Malays have inhabited South Sumatra region. Since beginning of year, residents of South Sumatra have established trade relations with other nations, such as Arabs, Chinese and Indians.

IPHEDIA - The formation South Sumatra Province has a long history, formed on 12 September 1950. At that time, South Sumatra Province still included Bengkulu, Lampung, and Bangka Belitung Islands (Babel). The three regions will later become their own provinces.

In South Sumatra, the first population is thought to have originated from palaeolithic era. This can be proven from palaeolithic objects found in several areas, including in Bengamas Village, at the bottom Saling river and Kikim river.

Experts are view that people of that era belonged to Wedda race, where Kubu and Toale people belonged to that race. Since 300 BC, Deutro-Malays have inhabited South Sumatra region. Since beginning year, residents South Sumatra have established trade relations with other nations, such as Arabs, Chinese and Indians.
 

Rapid development society resulted in formation of a large kingdom, named Sriwijaya. According to Kedukan Bukit Inscription discovered in 1926, it was stated that on 17 June 683 AD a settlement called Sriwijaya was established which later developed into a large kingdom.

Srivijaya grew and developed during seventh century until twelfth century. At height of its glory, Srivijaya had 13 colonial countries covering entire territory Western Indonesia and entire Malay peninsula to south Bandon Bay.

At that time, Srivijaya was center international trade and  center spread Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Srivijaya is also famous as  largest and strongest maritime kingdom in archipelago.

Sriwijaya's heyday began to fade since attacks came from Siam Kingdom in 1292, Malay-Jambi Kingdom which was ruled by Singasari Kingdom, and Singasari Kingdom itself, which attacked Srivijaya at about same time.

After collapse Srivijaya, around South Sumatra appeared several small kingdoms. However, although many kingdoms have sprung up around it, South Sumatra itself can be said to be vacuum because there is no power that continues the Srivijaya Power. This state of vacuum lasted until middle sixteenth century.

In sixteenth century, sultanate Palembang stood, on banks Musi river. Its founder is Ki Gedeng Suro, a political escape from Demak. The empire began to face Netherlands in seventeenth century.

In 1825, Dutch succeeded in removing this empire after defeating Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin. Since then Palembang became a Residency and came under Dutch rule.

The beginning of 20th century was a moment emergence of a nationalist spirit. A number of nationalist movement organizations emerged in this area such as Sarekat Islam, PKI, PNI, Partindo, PNI Baru, PSII, PII, and Parindra.

The spirit of this national movement had declined when Japan occupied this area. But after Indonesia won its independence, August 17, 1945, this spirit grew again in the form of the spirit of maintaining independence.

At the beginning of independence, South Sumatra was not yet a province. This area is part Sumatra province and is in form residency. U.K. Gani was appointed by President Soekarno as resident and responsible to Sumatra governor Teuku Muhammad Hasan.

On January 1, 1947, there was a battle for independence for five days and five nights. This battle is largest battle in history to maintain Indonesian independence in South Sumatra. Netherlands failed to paralyze all forces of fighters in South Sumatra.

On July 21, 1947, Dutch launched a large-scale invasion of all defenses of fighters throughout Indonesia, including in South Sumatra. This raid was called Military Action I. As a result of this Dutch military action, residency center had to be moved from Palembang to Lahat.

The Netherlands then launched military action II which resulted in occupation Republic of Indonesia's capital, Yogyakarta. In addition, the Dutch also succeeded in occupying other regions, including South Sumatra. During occupation of this area, Dutch formed the State of South Sumatra with Abdul Malik as guardian his country.

The existence of this South Sumatra country did not last long. On September 12, 1950, Republic of Indonesia was re-formed. South Sumatra is one provinces  newly formed NKRI. Other provinces are North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Nusa Tenggara.

In 1950s, condition South Sumatra was disrupted by emergence separatist movements, such as PRRI rebellion and Major Juahartono incident. But all these rebellions can be overcome. (US)

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