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During Japanese Occupation and Indonesian Independence

During occupation, Japan also formed preparations for independence BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Agency for Investigation) or (Dokuritsu JUNBI Chosa-kai) in Japanese.

IPHEDIA - After Dutch East Indies colonia which colonized for centuries, in 1942 Indonesia was occupied by Japanese troops. The Japanese occupation of Indonesia ended on August 17, 1945 along with proclamation independence Republic of Indonesia by Sukarno and M. Hatta on behalf Indonesian people.

Japan's plan to form a Greater East Asia State caused Japan to become involved in Pacific war. In a relatively short period of time, Japan had gained control of the Southeast Asian region, including Indonesia.

In May 1940, beginning of World War II, Dutch occupied Nazi Germany. Dutch East Indies declared a state of alert and in July diverted exports to Japan to United States and Britain. Negotiations with Japan aimed at securing aviation fuel supply failures in June 1941, and Japan began conquest Southeast Asia in December of that year.

In same month, faction from Sumatra was recipient of Japanese aid to hold a revolution against Dutch government. Last Dutch troops were defeated by Japanese in March 1942.

Eexistence Japanese occupation in Indonesia resulted in people's misery, both physically and mentally. That was due to Japan's exploitation both in economic and social fields. Behind negative side, Japanese occupation period also had a positive aspect, namely use Indonesian and military exercises that were carried out.

During occupation, Japan also formed preparations for independence BPUPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparatory Agency for Investigation) or (Dokuritsu JUNBI Chosa-kai) in Japanese. This body is tasked with forming preparations for pre-independence and making foundation country and replaced by PPKI tasked with preparing for independence.

Underground Struggle

Underground struggle is generally carried out by leaders of our nation who work in Japanese government agencies. So, they appear to be employees, but behind that they carry out activities aimed at gathering and uniting the people to continue struggle for independence. Underground struggle is found in various regions, such as Jakarta, Semarang, Bandung, Surabaya and Medan.

Sukarni Group

During Japanese occupation, Sukarni worked in Sendenbu or  Japanese Propaganda Line with Moh. Yamin This movement was carried out by bringing together people with a revolutionary spirit, spreading ideals of independence, and silencing lies perpetrated by Japanese.

To cover up his movement, Sukami group established a political hostel under name Indonesian New Force. In this hostel leaders of other national movements, such as Ir. Soekarno, Drs. Moh. Hatta, Mr. Ahmad Subarjo, and Mr. Sunaryo educates young people related to general knowledge and political issues.

Ahmad Subarjo Group

Ahmad Subarjo during Japanese occupation served as Head of the Kaigun Bukanfu Research Bureau (Naval Transportation Office) in Jakarta. Ahmad Subarjo tried to gather Indonesian national figures who worked in Japanese Navy.

With encouragementAhmad Subarjo's group, Lau Force succeeded in establishing a youth hostel called Merdeka Indonesia Dormitory. In this Merdeka dormitory, leaders Indonesian people gave lessons that indirectly instilled spirit of nationalism in Indonesian youth.

Sutan Syahrir Group


Sutan Syahrir group fought secretly by bringing together their former school friends and colleagues in Dutch Indian era. In his struggle, Syahrir established relations with national leaders who were forced to cooperate with Japan. Syahrir gave lessons at Merdeka Indonesia Dormitory owned by Japanese Navy (Kaigun) together with Ir. Soekarno, Drs. Moh Hatta, Ahmad Subarjo, and Iwa Kusuma Sumantri.

Youth Group

This youth group during Japanese occupation received special attention because it would be used to carry out Japanese interests. Japanese Military Government instilled its influence through courses and educational institutions, such as courses at New Indonesian Angkata Dormitory established by Japanese Navy. However, young Indonesians were not young consumed by Japanese propaganda.

During Japanese occupation, in Jakarta there were two groups of youths who were actively struggling who were assembled in Ika Gaigakhu (Medical College) and Indonesian Student Consultative / Representative Body (BAPEPPI). This organization actively struggles with other groups. Characters include Johan Nur, Eri Sadewa, E.A. Ratulangi, and Syarif Thayeb.

Armed People's Struggle

Leaders national movement increasingly could not bear to witness heartbreaking suffering and misery people. Therefore, some of them began to rise against Japan by means of gun resistance. Armed resistance against Japan occurred in various regions.

In Aceh, resistance broke out in Cot Plieng area in November 1942 under leadership Tengku Abdul Jalil. This resistance could finally be crushed by Japanese army and Abdul Jalil was shot dead.

In West Java, resistance broke out in February 1944 in Sukamanah area under leadership of K.H Zainal Mustafa. He could no longer bear to see life of people who had become increasingly destitute and suffered from a variety of deposits and forced labor. In addition, K.H Zainal Mustafa also refused to do seikeirei. Because this is considered contrary to the teachings of Islam so he gathered the people to fight Japan.

In Aceh, resistance resumed in November 1944 by the Giyugun Soldiers underleadership of Teuku Hamid. He along with a platoon of his men fled to forest and then resisted. To quell this rebellion, Japanese resorted to a cunning strategy, which took hostages of all members of their families. In this way Teuku Hamid finally surrendered and his troops dispersed.

Seikeirei, which is a tribute to Japanese emperor who is considered a descendant Sun God by facing east (Tokyo) and bowing deeply.

In Blitar, resistance broke out on February 14, 1945 under leadership of Supriyadi, a platoon commander of Company III and Battalion II of Peta troops in Blitar. This resistance in Blitar was  biggest resistance during Japanese occupation.

During Japanese military government (Dai Nippon) banned all political meetings and activities. On March 20, 1942, Japan issued regulations that apply to all political organizations and forms of association. On September 8, 1942 Law No. 2 Japan to control all organizations in Indonesia.

Entering 1943 or second year of its occupation, Japan intensively educated and trained Indonesian youth in military field. This is because situation on the battlefield Asia Pacific region increasingly complicated Japan, starting at sea battles in Midway in June 1942 and around Coral Sea between August 1942-February 1943.

Condition was exacerbated by fall Guadalacanal which was base of Japanese power in Pacific in August 1943. On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima City Japan by United States which began to reduce morale Japanese troops throughout the world.

A day later Indonesian Independence Preparatory Agency for Investigation BPUPKI, or "Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai", changed its name to PPKI (Indonesian Independence Preparation Committee) or also called Dokuritsu Junbi Inkai in Japanese, to further emphasize desire and goal of achieving Indonesian independence.

On August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, causing Japan to surrender to the United States and its allies. This moment was also used by Indonesia to proclaim its independence.

Soekarno and Hatta as PPKI leaders and Radjiman Wedyodiningrat as former chairman of BPUPKI were flown to Dalat, 250 km northeast of Saigon, Vietnam to meet Marshal Terauchi. They were reported that Japanese troops were on verge defeat and would grant independence to Indonesia.

Meanwhile in Indonesia, on August 10, 1945, Sutan Syahrir had heard the news over radio that Japan had surrendered to Allies. Underground fighters prepared to proclaim Indonesia's independence, and refused form independence given as a Japanese gift.

A few days later, Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was held on Friday, August 17, 1945 AD, or August 17, 2605 according to Japanese year, which was read by Sukarno accompanied by Drs. Mohammad Hatta is located at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56, Central Jakarta. Since that time until now every year on August 17, the people of Indonesia celebrate Independence Day Proclamation. (as/rd)

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