Salakanagara, Silver Country The Oldest Kingdom in Indonesia


IPHEDIA - In historical records there are some oldest kingdoms in Indonesia, including the Kingdom of Kutai, Tarumanegara, Malay, Tulang Bawang (Lampung), and others. On the island of Java, it was mentioned before the establishment Tarumanegara Kingdom that apparently a kingdom was named Salakanegara or called 'Negara Perak' (Silver Country).

The Salakanagara Kingdom is thought to be the oldest and earliest kingdom in Indonesia. Salakanagara was founded in 52 Saka (130/131 AD) and is believed to be ancestor of Sundanese. That is because the Salakanagara civilization region is exactly same as Sundanese civilization territory for centuries.

In addition to area ​​civilization, Salakanagara is a Sundanese ancestor strengthened by the similarity of vocabulary between Sundanese and Salakanagara. In addition, other evidence was found, in the form of Sundanese Clock or Salakanagara Clock, a method of mentioning Sundanese time or hours.

The founder of Salakanagara, Dewawarman, a traveling ambassador, merchant and immigrant from Pallawa, Bharata (India), finally settled because he married a local prince's daughter.

Besides Salakanagara, the founder of Tarumanagara was named Maharesi Jayasingawarman, a refugee from Salankayana, Bharata, because his area was controlled by Magada. Meanwhile, the Kingdom of Kutai was founded by refugees from Magada, Bharata after the area was also controlled by another kingdom.

The initial figure in power here was Aki Tirem. It is said that this city was called Argyrè by Ptolemy in 150, because Salakanagara was interpreted as the "Silver Country" in Sanskrit. The city is located in the Lada Bay area, Pandeglang, Banten.

Pandeglang, a city famous for its metals. Pandeglang in Sundanese stands for the words panday (clever) and geulang which means bracelet maker. The location capital kingdom is thought to be the city of Merak now (Merak in Sundanese means to make silver).

An 1600-year-old inscription dating from the time of Purnawarman, king of Tarumanagara, found in the Tugu Village, Jakarta, it is very possible that Argyre or Argyros at the western end mentioned Claudius Ptolemaeus Pelusiniensis (Ptolemy) from Egypt (87-150 AD) in his book "Geographical Hypergesis" is Salakanagara.

A report from China in 132 mentioned that Pien, the king of Ye-tiau, lent a gold stamp and purple ribbon to Tiao-Pien. The word Ye-tiau is interpreted by G. Ferrand, a French historian, as Javadwipa and Tiao-pien (Tiao = God, Pien = Warman) refers to Dewawarman.

The establishment Kingdom of Salakanagara

It was Aki Tirem, the ruler or ruler local village who eventually became the in-laws ambassador of Pallawa Dewawarman when the daughter of Sang Aki Luhur Mulya named Dewi Pohaci Larasati was married to Dewawarman. This made all followers and troops of Dewawarman married to local women and did not want to return to his hometown.

When Aki Tirem died, Dewawarman received a scepter. In 130 AD he then founded an empire named Salakanagara, the capital of Rajatapura.

He became the first king with the title Prabu Darmalokapala Dewawarman Aji Raksa Sagara Gapura. Several small kingdoms around it became his territory, including the Kingdom of Agninusa (Land of Fire) on Krakatau Island.

Rajatapura became the capital of Salakanagara which until 362 was the seat government Kings of Dewawarman (from Dewawarman I - VIII). Salakanagara stood only for 232 years, precisely from 130 AD to 362 AD. King Dewawarman I himself only ruled for 38 years and was replaced by his son who became King Dewawarman II with the title Prabu Digwijayakasa Dewawarmanputra.

Prabu Dharmawirya was listed as King Dewawarman VIII or the last king of Salakanagara until 363 because since then Salakanagara has become a kingdom under the authority of Tarumanagara which was founded in 358 AD by Maharesi who came from Calankayana, India named Jayasinghawarman. During the reign of Dewawarman VIII, the economic condition of the population was very good, prosperous and peaceful, while religious life was very harmonious.

In South Banten, there are many stories that present a very interesting history to be examined. One of them is the history of the Kingdom of Salakanagara which is still controversial historians and archeologists.

But, places like Cihunjuran, Citaman, Pulosari and Ujung Kulon sites are places that can uncover and store a lot of things about the existence Kingdom of Salakanagara. In Cihunjuran, for example, in the middle rice field there are some ancient stones (menhirs) and ancient bathing pools, precisely like the Megalithic era. (rs)
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