Kublai Khan, Founding Mongol Emperor of China's Yuan Dynasty

In 1271, Kublai founded the Yuan Dynasty, which ruled today's Mongolia, China, Korea and some of the surrounding areas, and assumed the role of Emperor of China. In 1279, the Mongols conquered the Song dynasty and Kublai became the first non-Han emperor to unite all of China.




IPHEDIA.com - Kublai Khan is known as Emperor Shizu of Yuan who reigned from 1260 to 1294. He founded the Yuan Dynasty in China as a dynastic conquest in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.Kublai

The fifth son of khagan from the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls) and fourth son Tolui (second son of Sorghaghtani Beki) and grandson of Genghis Khan.

He succeeded his older brother Möngke as Khagan in 1260, but had to defeat his younger brother Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War which lasted until 1264. This episode marked the beginning of a schism in the empire.

Back then, Kublai's real power was limited to China and Mongolia, although as a Khagan he still had influence in the Ilkhanate and to a lesser extent in the Golden Horde.

If one counts the Mongol Empire at that time as a whole, its territory extends from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea, from Siberia to what is now Afghanistan.

In 1271, Kublai founded the Yuan Dynasty, which ruled today's Mongolia, China, Korea and some of the surrounding areas, and assumed the role of Emperor of China. In 1279, the Mongols conquered the Song dynasty and Kublai became the first non-Han emperor to unite all of China.

The imperial portrait of Kublai is part of the portrait album of the emperor and empress of Yuan, which is now in the collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. White, the color of Kublai's royal costume, was the imperial color of the Yuan Dynasty.

The most prominent, and arguably most influential, components of Kublai Khan's early life are his studies and his strong interest in contemporary Chinese culture. Kublai invited Haiyun, a prominent Buddhist monk in North China, to his order in Mongolia.

When meeting Haiyun at Karakorum in 1242, Kublai asked him about the philosophy of Buddhism. Haiyun named Kublai's son, born in 1243, Zhenjin (Chinese: True Gold).

Haiyun also introduced Kublai to a former Daoist (Taoist), and at that time the Buddhist monk, Liu Bingzhong. Liu was a painter, calligrapher, poet, and mathematician, and he was Kublai's advisor when Haiyun returned to Beijing.

In 1251, Kublai Möngke's oldest brother became Khan of the Mongol Empire, and Khwarizmian Mahmud Yalavach and Kublai were sent to China. Kublai received viceroy of North China and transferred the order to central Inner Mongolia.

During his years as viceroy, Kublai managed his territory well, increasing Henan's agricultural output, and increasing social welfare spending after accepting Xi'an. These actions received great praise from Chinese warlords and were essential to the building of the Yuan Dynasty.

In the eighth year of Zhiyuan (1271), Kublai officially created the Yuan Dynasty and proclaimed its capital as Dadu, known as the Mongols the following year.

In order to unify China, Kublai initiated a major offensive against the remnants of Southern Song in 1274 and finally destroyed Song in 1279, as well as uniting the country at the Battle of Yamen, where the last Song Emperor Zhao Bing killed himself by jumping into the sea and ending the Song dynasty.

Kublai was a prolific writer of Chinese poetry, although most of his works did not survive. Only one Chinese poem written by him was included in the Yuan Poetry Selection, entitled 'Inspirations recorded while enjoying a hike to Mount Springs'.

The poem was translated into Mongolian by Inner Mongolian scholar B Buyan in the same style as classical Mongolian poetry and transcribed into Cyrillic by Ya Ganbaatar.

During his reign, Kublai made several expansions and carried out various wars, such as the invasion of Japan, Vietnam, Southeast Asia and the South Seas, even Java, Indonesia.

During the final years of his reign, Kublai launched a punitive naval expedition of 20-30,000 men against Singhasari in Java (1293), but the invading Mongol army was forced to retreat by Majapahit after losing more than 3,000 troops.

However, by 1294, the year of Kublai's death, the Thai kingdoms of Sukhothai and Chiang Mai had become vassal states for the Yuan dynasty.

Prior to his death, Kublai gave the seal of the Crown Prince to Zhenjin's son, Temür, who would become the next Khagan of the Mongol Empire and the second ruler of the Yuan Dynasty. On February 18, 1294, Kublai died at the age of 78. (as/ip)

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